These dogs are very early trained to the work which they are destined to follow, and even at the tender age of four or five months are harnessed together or in company with older animals, and are compelled, either by persuasion or brutal chastisement, to draw heavy weights, and thus soon become accustomed to the trammels of the rude gearing, and familiar with the service that they afterwards perform with so much sagacity and alacrity.
The Sheep-dog. The origin of the sheep-dog is somewhat various; but the predominant breed is that of the intelligent and docile spaniel. Although it is now found in every civilized country in which the sheep is cultivated, ii is not coeval with the domestication of that animal. When the pastures were in a manner open to the first occupant, and every shepherd had a common property in them, it was not so necessary to restrain the wandering of the sheep, and the voice of the shepherd was usually sufficient to collect and to guide them.
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He preceded the flock, and they "followed him whithersoever he went. A shepherd, in one of his excursions over the Grampian Hills to collect his scattered flock, took with him as is a frequent practice, to initiate them in their future business one of his children about four years old. After traversing his pastures for a while, attended by his dog, he was compelled to ascend a summit at some distance. As the ascent was too great for the child, he left him at the bottom, with strict injunctions not to move from the place.
Scarcely, however, had he gained the height, when one of the Scotch mists, of frequent occurrence, suddenly came on, and almost changed the day to night. He returned to seek his child, but was unable to find him, and concluded a long and fruitless search by coming distracted to his cottage. His poor dog also was missing in the general confusion.
On the next morning by daylight he renewed his search, but again he came back without his child. He found, however, that during his absence his dog had been home, and, on receiving his allowance of food, instantly departed. For four successive days the shepherd continued his search with the same bad fortune, the dog as readily coming for his meal and departing.
The origin of this diminutive hound is somewhat obscure. There is evidently much of the harrier and of the old southern, connected with a considerable decrease of size and speed, the possession of an exceedingly musical voice, and very great power of scent. Beagles are rarely more than ten or twelve inches in height, and were generally so nearly of the same size and power of speed, that it was commonly said they might be covered with a sheet.
This close running is, however, considered as a mark of excellence in hounds of every kind. There are many pleasurable recollections of the period when "the good old English gentleman" used to keep his pack of beagles or little harriers, slow but sure, occasionally carried to the field in a pair of panniers on a horse's back; often an object of ridicule at an early period of the chase, but rarely failing to accomplish their object ere the day closed, "the puzzling pack unravelling wile by wile, maze within maze.
The Harrier occupies an intermediate station between the beagle and the fox-hound. It is the fox-hound bred down to a diminished size, and suited to the animal he is to pursue. He retains, or did for a while retain, the long body, deep chest, large bones, somewhat heavy head, sweeping ears, and mellow voice, which the sportsman of old so enthusiastically described, with the certainty of killing, and the pleasing prolongation of the chase. With this the farmer used to be content: it did not require expensive cattle, was not attended with much hazard of neck, and did not take him far from home.
Almost every country squire used in former days to keep his little pack of harriers or beagles. He was mounted on his stout cob-horse, that served him alike for the road and the chase; and his huntsman probably had a still smaller and rougher beast, or sometimes ran afoot. The Fox Hound is of a middle size, between the harrier and the stag-hound; it is the old English hound, sufficiently crossed with the greyhound to give him lightness and speed without impairing his scent; and he has now been bred to a degree of speed sufficient to satisfy the man who holds his neck at the least possible price, and with which few, except thorough-bred horses, and not all of them, can live to the end of the chase.
The fox-hound is lighter, or as it is now called, more highly bred, or he retains a greater portion of his original size and heaviness, according to the nature of the country and the fancy of the master of the pack: therefore it is difficult to give an accurate description of the best variety of this dog; but there are guiding points which can never be forgotten without serious injury. The Duke was his own architect, assisted by, and under the guidance of, Mr. Wyatt; he dug his own flints, burnt his own lime, and conducted the wood-work in his own shops.
The result of his labours was the noble building of which a plan is here given. The dog-kennel is a grand object when viewed from Goodwood. The front is handsome, the ground well raised about it, and the general effect good; the open court in the centre adds materially to the noble appearance of the building.
There used to be in the south of Devon a pack or cry of the genuine old English or southern hounds. There is some reason to believe that this was the original stock of the island, or of this part of the island, and that this hound was used by the ancient Britons in the chase of the larger kinds of game with which the country formerly abounded.
Its distinguishing characters are its size and general heavy appearance; its great length of body, deep chest, and ears remarkably large and pendulous. The tones of its voice were peculiarly deep. It answered the description of Shakspeare:. The Setter is evidently the large spaniel improved to his peculiar size and beauty, and taught another way of marking his game, viz. If the form of the dog were not sufficiently satisfactory on this point, we might have recourse to history for information on it.
Daniel, in his Rural Sports , has preserved a document, dated in the year , in which a yeoman binds himself for the sum of ten shillings, fully and effectually to teach a spaniel to sit partridges and pheasants. The pointer is evidently descended from the hound.
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We beg leave to make the following extracts from our essay on this subject, published in No. Many sportsmen are under the erroneous idea that the pointer is contemporary with, if not older than, the Setter. Such, however, is not the case; and we are led to believe that the Pointer is of quite modern origin; at all events, the production of a much later date than the spaniel. The Bull-dog. The round, thick head, turned-up nose, and thick and pendulous lips of this dog are familiar to all, while his ferocity makes him in the highest degree dangerous.
In general he makes a silent although ferocious attack, and the persisting powers of his teeth and jaws enable him to keep his hold against any but the greatest efforts, so that the utmost mischief is likely to ensue as well to the innocent visitor of his domicile as the ferocious intruder. The bull-dog is scarcely capable of any education, and is fitted for nothing but ferocity and combat. The name of this dog is derived from his being too often employed, until a few years ago, in baiting the bull. It was practised by the low and dissolute in many parts of the country.
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Dogs were bred and trained for the purpose; and, while many of them were injured or destroyed, the head of the bull was lacerated in the most barbarous manner. Nothing can exceed the fury with which the bull-dog rushed on his foe, and the obstinacy with which he maintained his hold. He fastened upon the lip, the muzzle, or the eye, and there he hung in spite of every effort of the bull to free himself from his antagonist.
The Mastiff The head considerably resembles that of the bull-dog, but with the ears dependent. The upper lip falls over the lower jaw. The end of the tail is turned up, and frequently the fifth toe of the hind feet is more or less developed. The nostrils are separated one from another by a deep furrow. He has a grave and somewhat sullen countenance, and his deep-toned bark is often heard during the night. The mastiff is taller than the bull-dog, but not so deep in the chest, and his head is large compared with his general form.
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It is probable that the mastiff is an original breed peculiar to the British islands. He seems to be fully aware of the impression which his large size makes on every stranger; and, in the night especially, he watches the abode of his master with the completest vigilance; in fact, nothing would tempt him to betray the confidence which is reposed in him.
The Scotch Terrier There is reason to believe that this dog is far older than the English terrier. There are three varieties: first the common Scotch terrier, twelve or thirteen inches high; his body muscular and compact — considerable breadth across the loins — the legs shorter and stouter than those of the English terriers.
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The head large in proportion to the size of the body — the muzzle small and pointed — strong marks of intelligence in the countenance — warm attachment to his master, and the evident devotion of every power to the fulfilment of his wishes. The hair is long and tough, and extending over the whole of the frame.
In colour, they are black or fawn: the white, yellow, or pied are always deficient in purity of blood. Finding that no external application was of any permanent benefit, we resolved to have resort to the same operation we saw practised in ihe Parisian hospitals for the cure of a similar malformation in the human subject. To insure quiet we enclosed the body of the dog in a case, made stationary and sufficiently small to prevent struggling, with the head firmly fixed by a sliding door, as represented in the accompanying drawing.
The mouth was kept closed by a small strap passed around the muzzle. This method of fixing a strong dog, we consider the best ever adopted for all nice operations on the face. The first step in the operation was to pinch up a portion of the lax skin of the diseased lid and pass three needles, armed with silk ligatures, successively through the base of the upraised integuments. One needle approximating the external canthus, another the internal, and a third midway between these two points, as represented in the annexed drawing. The next step was lo raise up the integuments included in the ligature, and, by means of a pair of sharp scissors, cut off the super-abundant skin as near to the ligatures as possible; having care however to leave sufficient substance included in the ligatures, to prevent their sloughing out before adhesion has taken place.
The next and last step of the operation was, to draw the edges of the wound together by tying each ligature, which procedure immediately secured the lid and held it firmly in its natural position. The ligatures were now cut short, and a large wire muzzle, covered over with some dark substance on the operated eye, being put on him, and his legs hobbled with a piece of strong twine, more effectually to prevent his scratching the head, "Fop" was then set at liberty, and soon became reconciled to this eye-shade. The caruncula lachrymalis is a small glandular body situated at the internal commissure of each eye.
This little gland often becomes greatly enlarged from inflammation or fungous growths — old dogs are much more subject to the disease than young ones. If, however, it continues much swollen and runs on to suppuration, it may be punctured with a lancet and poultices applied. If the affection be of a malignant character, the gland may be drawn out by passing a ligature through its base, and then excised.
The haw is most frequently concerned in the disease, and may also be removed. Collyria No. The dog should be purged with salts, and the ear washed with castile soap and tepid water. The solution opposite may be introduced several times a day: This affection in old dogs is very troublesome, and in most cases impossible to cure. Alum, zinc, copper, lead, and other astringent applications may be used in powder, as a local application in these cases. The next day they're screaming at you while surrounded by the shredded remains of what they keep calling "My birth certificate!
My only birth certificate! Therefore it's wise to keep a big distance but a close watch on others at all times, throwing off any suspicion of judgment with an expression of utter boredom that indicates you might yawn should they suddenly burst into flames. After all, even the calmest, happiest person today may be the very one sobbing over six shattered antique vases saying, "It's like you hate me! That's when it's best to reflect on your actions from under a bed, behind a fridge, or wedged between sofa cushions, believing you are now indistinguishable from upholstery.
Then after an hour or five return neither contrite nor comprehending of their anger but radiating the message, "All is forgiven. You'll be surprised to find someone else living in the house. And it is on this common ground of utter bewilderment that a new relationship can be built.
Some days you will run and run and run and run and run and run and run in circles and just stop, never knowing what the hell all that running was about.